In the following we introduce EU policies and terms relevant to labour mobility in Europe.


The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a system for credit accumulation and transfer based on learning outcomes. It aims to facilitate the recognition and validation of qualifications and units of learning outcomes. ECTS is widely used in formal higher education and enhances student mobility.

The European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) is a technical framework for the transfer, recognition and accumulation of learning outcomes with view to achieving a vocational qualification. The learning outcomes are described in terms of knowledge, skills and competence. ECVET aims for better compatibility between the different vocational education and training (VET) systems and their qualifications across Europe.

The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) is a reference framework that acts as a translation device comparing qualifications and education levels across Europe. In 2008 the European Parliament and the Council recommended that all member states relate their national qualifications system to the EQF by referencing national qualification levels to EQF levels and by developing a national qualifications framework (NQF).